Heat is hardly the main component of comfort, it’s not so important what it is about - a luxurious mansion or a modest city apartment. Heating can be mounted in different ways, but the most popular is still considered a radiator system. In fact, the wiring diagram of heating radiators in the apartment and in the private house is not so much different between themselves, so we will next discuss what systems are generally used in this sector.
What systems are used
Whatever radiators are used, it is important to clearly know what system they will be mounted on. The choice here is small, one-pipe and two-pipe systems are considered the most common. In addition, in private cottages and new buildings with a free layout, it is sometimes preferred to install the collector version of the distribution of the coolant.
Single pipe system
In a one-pipe system, the batteries are connected in series. These schemes for connecting radiators in an apartment building are used most often. The obvious advantages here are the ease of installation and the relative cheapness of the project.
A weak point in the serial connection is the impossibility of any temperature adjustment, except for a change in the total coolant temperature. In this case, the heating of radiators as the coolant moves will be uneven. In order to eliminate this annoying misunderstanding, as you move away from the heater or input, more sections of the radiator are added.
Tip: a one-pipe serial heating radiator is perfect for those private houses in which heating is carried out through the natural circulation of the coolant. Often these are small one-story houses for 2 - 3 living rooms or villas.
The important point is the presence of the so-called bypass. Simply put, the bypass is a jumper between the inlet pipe and the return pipe, which is mounted directly next to the radiator.
Behind this jumper, ball valves are installed for inlet and return valves, as a result, the battery can be disconnected at any time and replaced if necessary. The water will go through the bypass and the system will not require a full stop.
Two-pipe mounting option provides for parallel connection of batteries. In this case, a distribution is carried out simultaneously to all radiators, and the second pipe is the return pipe. Bypass in such a system is not installed, because the removal of one of the cells does not stop the entire system. But, as in the first case, ball valves are to be mounted at the entrance and exit.
A parallel installation option, although it entails a greater consumption of pipes and valves, but for private houses is much more efficient than one-pipe. For arrangement of heating in most multi-storey buildings, this option is not suitable.
The collector connection scheme remotely resembles a two-pipe system. Only here a collector with two dies is mounted, one for feeding and the other for return. The number of terminals on the comb corresponds to the number of radiators or other heating devices.
The meaning is in arranging a single control center for heating devices. Plus, the collector is mounted if the system provides for the installation of heated floors in addition to radiators. In addition, modern collectors are often supplied with thermal sensors, which are able to automatically regulate the temperature in the room.
Important: the scheme of the correct connection of radiators of heating is clearly regulated by a number of regulatory documents. Professionals, as a rule, are guided by the SNiP 3.05.01-85 or more modern version of the SNiP 41-01-2003.
Ways to connect radiators
The heat carrier, which is often water, can circulate in the system forcibly or naturally. Forced circulation in private homes is done through the installation of a circulating pump, this unit consumes little energy, and heating efficiency increases many times. Naturally, for apartment buildings, a coercive system is considered the only possible one.
Natural circulation of the coolant is currently used only in places with serious power outages. The principle of operation is based on the known laws of physics. The heated liquid rises, and the cold one goes down. If you competently mount the structure, the system will work autonomously, and energy will be needed only for heating the heat carrier.
Important: the more powerful the circulating pump is, the more efficient the heating operation will be. The choice of the method of connecting the battery becomes especially relevant when natural circulation or insufficiently high temperature of the coolant.
In general, there are several specialized connection options for each type of system.
But all of them can be reduced to three areas:
- Side docking;
- Lower connection;
- Diagonal connection.
One way or side connection
Side docking is the most common and simple connection method. Often, it is used for installation in apartment buildings with a vertical single-pipe coolant supply system. Under normal pressure and the design temperature of the water supply, heat loss here is a maximum of 5 - 7%
Another positive aspect of side mounting is the ability to install or replace the radiator with your own hands. In the presence of a bypass and ball valves, the replacement instruction is extremely simple: turn off the taps, disconnect the old radiator and install a new one.
As the name implies, the coolant in the radiator should move diagonally. In this case, the input is connected to the top of the battery, and the output must be mounted at the bottom diagonally. With a slight increase in the consumption of the pipe, the owners here receive the highest efficiency.
In this way it is recommended to connect radiators in case of unstable coolant temperature in the heating system. Interestingly, the instruction contains design characteristics that are designed for a diagonal connection.
Unlike diagonal mounting, the bottom connection is the lowest in terms of energy efficiency. Among professionals, he is often called Leningradka. Heat losses in the presence of a decorating screen or installation in a niche under the window can reach up to 10 - 15% or more.
Perhaps the only advantage of this approach is the ability to hide the supply pipes in the floor. It is because of the aesthetic appeal that many owners prefer lower-mounted batteries. To install such a radiator, a special “multiflex” adapter is used, equipped with two ball valves for switching off.
Important: adapters for lower mounting can be adapted to the side exit of the tubes from the wall and under the lower vertical connection. Plus, the center gap in them is 50 and 80 mm. Therefore, in order not to spend money in vain, you should pay attention to these little things.
The choice of radiators
On the modern market there are many models of radiators, but all of them can be divided by material and configuration. As for the configuration and design, there are dozens of options, and each manufacturer produces its own models.
With the material, everything is much simpler:
- Cast iron batteries considered patriarchs, they have been used for over a hundred years. And, despite the emergence of modern competitors, good old cast iron is still in the price. It is caused by three main reasons: firstly, the cast iron has an enviable heat capacity, it keeps the temperature at interruptions with heating up to 12 hours. Secondly, cast iron is not afraid of corrosion, and thirdly, the price for it is quite acceptable.
- Aluminum radiators have the highest efficiency, differ in esthetic appeal and small weight. But when in contact with copper, aluminum forms a galvanic couple and actively corrodes. Plus he is not able to hold pressure. As a result, these batteries are suitable only for autonomous systems in private homes.
- Steel panel radiators currently rarely used. Popular tubular systems. The most famous representative in this niche is a heated towel rail for the bathroom.
- People who are not used to saving often install bimetallic batteries. The core in these structures is made of stainless steel and can withstand any pressure or water hammer, and the shell is made of aluminum. As a result of this symbiosis, bimetallic structures have unique characteristics of quality. In fact, their only drawback is the high price.
Not the last role played by a competent calculation of battery power.
In this case, it is not so important what material the radiator itself is made of, if you correctly calculate the heat transfer, then your home will always be warm and comfortable.
- For typical urban high rises, where ceilings do not exceed 3 m in height, it is considered as a reference that about 100 W of thermal energy is consumed per square meter of floor space. Further, the total quadrature is multiplied by 100 W and we get the result. If the room is a corner or there is a balcony, then 20% is added to the result.
- In private homes, the approach to the calculations is the same. Only here is not the square, but the volume of the room. An average of 1m? room consumes 41 watts of power. By calculating the cubature of the room and multiplying it by 41 W, you will get the desired power of radiators.
The video in this article contains additional information on the topic.
Competently made scheme of the correct connection of radiators, of course, is the key to a comfortable atmosphere of your home. For a small house, you can make it yourself, but without proper experience, it is not worth taking up the design of heating in a solid cottage.